REQUIRED READING

Rudolf Wittkower
Architectural Principles in the Age of Humanism, 1998

Pythagoras
UNDER CONSTRUCTION
Plato
RECOMMENDED READING

Francis M. Comford, Plato Cosmology: The Timaeus of Plato, [1956] 1997
SWEET BRIAR LIBRARY:
B387.A5 C6 1956

The ancient Greek philosopher Plato (c. 428/427  348/347 BCE) discusses number in the Republic and the Timaeus
An Excerpt from Plato's Timaeus
UNDER CONSTRUCTION
Leonardo Fibonacci
RECOMMENDED READING

Trudi H. Garland, Fascinating Fibonaccis: Mystery and Magic in Numbers, 1987

RECOMMENDED READING

Richard A. Dunlap, The Golden Ratio and Fibonacci Numbers, 2000

Leonardo Fibonacci (c. 1170  after 1240; also known as Leonardo of Pisa) was an Italian mathematician. He wrote the Liber abaci (1202; "Book of the Abacus"), which was the first European work to include Indian and Arabian mathematics. He produced another work in 1220 called Practica geometriae ("Practice of Geometry").
In the 1220s Leonardo was invited to appear before the emperor Frederick II at Pisa. For the next several years, he corresponded with Frederick II and his scholar. In 1225, he dedicated his Liber quadratorum ("Book of Square Numbers") to Frederick.
Besides his role in introducing HinduArabic numerals to Europeans, Leonardo is best known today for the socalled Fibonacci sequence, which is derived from a problem in the Liber abaci:
A certain man put a pair of rabbits in a place surrounded on all sides by a wall. How many pairs of rabbits can be produced from that pair in a year if it is supposed that every month each pair begets a new pair which from the second month on becomes productive?
The resulting number sequence is 1, 1, 2, 3, 5, 8, 13, 21, 34, 55, in which each number is the sum of the two preceding numbers. It is the first recursive number sequence (in which the relation between two or more successive terms can be expressed by a formula) known in Europe.
In 1753, the mathematician Robert Simson at the University of Glasgow in Scotland noted that, as the numbers increased in magnitude, the ratio between succeeding numbers approached the number of the golden ratio, whose value is 1.6180 . . .
In the 19th century the term Fibonacci sequence was coined by the French mathematician Edouard Lucas.
Scientists began to discover examples of the Fibonacci sequence in nature. For example:
 in the spirals of sunflower heads
 in pine cones
 in the regular descent (genealogy) of the male bee
 in the related logarithmic (equiangular) spiral in snail shells
 in the arrangement of leaf buds on a stem
 in animal horns
UNDER CONSTRUCTION
Magic Numbers and Squares
UNDER CONSTRUCTION
Numerology
RECOMMENDED READING

Dudley Underwood, Numerology: Or, What Pythagoras Wrought, 1997

Numerology
UNDER CONSTRUCTION

Further Reading
Lionel March
Architectonics of Humanism: Essays on Numbers in Architecture, 1998
SWEET BRIAR LIBRARY: NA 2760 .M35 1998
Anthony Grafton and Nancy Siraisi (eds.)
Natural Particular: Nature and the Disciplines in Renaissance Europe, 1999
SWEET BRIAR LIBRARY QH 81 .N3 1999
Clifford A. Pickover
The Zen of Magic Squares, Circles, and Stars 2002
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