1. Eve and Women
2. Eve in Genesis
3. Eve's Identity
4. Genesis & Patriarchy
5. Eve and the Serpent
6. Old Testament, Women & Evil
7. Eve & Lilith
Genesis 1-3

Hans Memling
outer right panel of a triptych
c. 1485
(Art History Museum, Vienna)


  1. William F. Albright, "An Aramaean Magical Text in Hebrew from the Seventh Century," Bulletin of the American Schools of Oriental Research, 76, 1939, 5-11.

  2. Brandt Aymar, ed., Treasury of Snake Lore From the Garden of Eden to Snakes of Today in Mythology, Fable, Stories, Essays, Poetry, Drama, Religion, and Personal Adventures, New York: Greenberg, 1956.

  3. Anne Baring and Jules Cashford, The Myth of the Goddess: Evolution of an Image, London: Penguin, 1993.

  4. Athalya Brenner, ed., A Feminist Companion to Genesis, Sheffield, England: Sheffield Academic Press, 1993.

  5. Robert Briffault, The Mothers: The Matriarchal Theory of Social Origins, New York: Macmillan, 1931

  6. Peter Brown, The Body and Society: Men, Women, and Sexual Renunciation in Early Christianity, New York: Columbia University Press, 1988.

  7. E. A. Wallis Budge, Amulets and Talismans, New Hyde Park, NY: University Books, 1968.

  8. Joseph Campbell, The Mythic Image, Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1974.

  9. Elizabeth A. Clark, Women in the Early Church, Wilmington, Del.: Michael Glazier, 1983.

  10. Gillian Clark, Women in the Ancient World, Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1989.

  11. Frank Moore Cross, Canaanite Myth and Hebrew Epic: Essays in the History of the Religion of Israel, Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1973.

  12. Joseph Dan, "Samael, Lilith, and the Concept of Evil in Early Kabbalah," Association for Jewish Studies Review, 5, 1980, 17-40.

  13. Joseph Dan, ed., The Early Kabbalah, New York: Paulist Press, 1986.

  14. John Day, "Asherah in the Hebrew Bible and Northern Semitic Literature," Journal of Biblical Literature, 105, 1986, 385-408.

  15. Riane Eisler, The Chalice and the Blade, San Francisco: Harper, 1987.

  16. I. Epstein, The Babylonian Talmud, 16 vols. in 7 parts, London: Socino Press, 1978.

  17. Edward S. Gifford, Jr., The Evil Eye: Studies in the Folklore of Vision, New York: Macmillan, 1958.

  18. Robert Graves and Raphael Patai, Hebrew Myths: The Book of Genesis, Garden City, NY: Doubleday, 1964.

  19. Jean M. Higgins, "The Myth of Eve: The Temptress," Journal of the American Academy of Religion, 44, 1976, 639-647.

  20. Knut Holter, "The Serpent in eden as a Symbol of Israel's Political Enemies: A Yahwistic Criticism of the Solomonic Foreign Policy?" Scandinavian Journal of the Old Testament, 1, 1990, 106-112.

  21. Flemming Hvidberg, "The Canaanitic Background of Gen. I-III," Vetus Testamentum, 10, 1960, 285-294.

  22. Karen Randolph Joines, Serpent Symbolism in the Old Testament: A Linguistic, Archaeological, and Literary Approach, Haddonfield, NJ: Haddonfield House, 1974.

  23. Emil Kraeling, "A Unique Babylonian Relief," Bulletin of the American School of Oriental Research, 67, 1937, 16-18.

  24. Susan S. Lanser, "(Feminist) Criticism in the Garden: Inferring Genesis 2-3," Semeia, 41, 1988, 67-84.

  25. Jean Laporte, The Role of Women in Early Christianity, New York: Edward Mellen Press, 1982.

  26. Sarah Roth Lieberman, The Eve Motif in Ancient Near Eastern and Classical Greek Sources, Ph.D. dissertation, Boston University, 1975.

  27. Pamela J. Milne, "Eve and Adam: Is a Feminist Reading Possible?," Bible Review, 4, 1988, 12-21, 39.

  28. Balaji Mundkur, The Cult of the Serpent: An Interdisciplinary Survey of Its Manifestations and Origins, Albany: State University of New York Press, 1983.

  29. Elaine Pagels, Adam and Eve and the Serpent, London: Weidenfeld and Nicholson, 1988.

  30. Raphael Patai, "The Goddess Asherah," Journal of Near Eastern Studies, 24, 1965, 37-52.

  31. Raphael Patai, The Hebrew Goddess, Detroit: Wayne State University Press, 1990.

  32. Gerhard von Rad, Genesis, A Commentary, translated by J. H. Marks, Philadelphia: Westminster Press, 1961.

  33. William L. Reed, The Asherah in the Old Testament, Fort Worth, Texas: Texas Christian University Press, 1949.

  34. Russell Hope Robbins, The Encyclopedia of Witchcraft and Demonology, New York: Crown Publishers, 1959.

  35. Gershom Scholem, "Lilith," in Encyclopaedia Judaica, vol. II, Jerusalem, 1972,

  36. Gershom Scholem, On the Mystical Shape of the Godhead: Basic Concepts in the Kabbalah, New York: Schocken Books, 1991.

  37. Joyce E. Salisbury, Church Fathers, Independent Virgins, London and New York: Verso, 1991.

  38. Morton Smith, Palestinian Parties and Politics That Shaped the Old Testament, New York and London: Columbia University Press, 1971.

  39. H. F. D. Sparks, ed., The Apocryphal Old Testament, Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1984.

  40. F. R. Tennant, The Sources of the Doctrine of the Fall and Original Sin, New York: Schocken, 1968 (first published 1903).

  41. Phylis Trible, "Depatriarchalizing in Biblical Interpretation," Journal of the American Academy of Religion, 41, 1973, 30-48.

  42. Phyllis Trible, God and the Rhetoric of Sexuality, Philadelphia: Fortress Press, 1978.

An earlier version of this essay appeared originally in Images of Women in Ancient Art

Copyright © (text only) 2000. Christopher L. C. E. Witcombe. All rights reserved

Chris Witcombe | Sweet Briar College